Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Narrative Review

Vol. 12 No. 1 (2009)

Climate Change and Health in Canada

  • Lea Berrang Ford
November 12, 2020




  1. IPCC. Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva; 2007.
  2. IPCC. Climate change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability, Summary for Policy Makers. Brussels: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; 2007.
  3. Schellnhuber HJ. Global warming: Stop worrying, start panicking? Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008;105(38):14239-40.
  4. Ramanathan V, Feng Y. On avoiding dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system: Formidable challenges ahead. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 2008;105(38):14245-50.
  5. May W. Climatic changes associated with a global "2°C- stabilization" scenario simulated by the ECHAM5/ MPI-OM coupled climate model. Climate Dynamics. 2008;31(2-3):283- 313.
  6. Lenton TM, Held H, Kriegler E, Hall JW, Lucht W, Rahmstorf S, et al. Inaugural Article: Tipping elements in the Earth's climate system. 2008:1786-93.
  7. Stern N. The Economics of Climate Change: The Stern Review. Cambridge Cambridge University Press 2006.
  8. Stern N, Taylor C. Climate change: Risks, ethics, and the Stern Review. Science. 2007;317:203-4.
  9. ACIA. Arctic Climate Impacts Assessment. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press 2005.
  10. Lawrence DM, Slater AG, Tomas RA, Holland MM, Deser C. Accelerated Arctic land warming and permafrost degradation during rapid sea ice loss. Geophysical Research Letters. 2008;35(11).
  11. Basu R, Samet J. Relations between elevated ambient temperature and mortality: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Epidemiologic Reviews. 2002;24:190-202.
  12. Campbell-Lendrum C, Woodruff R. Climate change: quantifying the health impacts at national and local levels. Environmental Burden of Disease Series, World Health Organization. 2007;14.
  13. Ebi K, Semenza J. Community-based adaptation to the health impacts of climate change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(5):501-07.
  14. Epstein P. Climate change and emerging infectious diseases. Microbes Infect. 2001;3:747-54.
  15. Frumkin H, McMichael A, Hess J. Climate change and the health of the public. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(5):401-02.
  16. IPCC. Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change: Working Group II. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press; 2007.
  17. Keim M. Building human resilience: the role of public health preparedness and response as an adaptation to climate change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(5):508-16.
  18. McMichael A, Campbell-Lendrem D, Corvalan C, Ebi K, Githeko A, Scheraga J, et al. Climate change and human health - risk and responses. Geneva: World Health Organization 2003.
  19. McMichael A, Campbell–Lendrum D, Kovats S, Edwards S, Wilkinson P, Wilson T, et al. Climate Change. In: Ezzati M, Lopez A, Rodgers A, Mathers C, eds. Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors. Geneva: World Health Organization 2004:1543-649.
  20. McMichael AJ, Woodruff RE, Hales S. Climate change and human health: present and future risks The Lancet. 2006;367(9513):859-69.
  21. Patz J, Campbell-Lendrum D, Holloway T, Foley J. Impact of regional climate on human health. Nature. 2005;438(7066):310- 17.
  22. Patz J, Kovats F. Hotspots in climate change and human health. BMJ. 2002;325:1094-98.
  23. Luber G, McGeehin M. Climate change and extreme health events. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(5):429-35.
  24. Braga A, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. The effect of weather on respiratory and cardiovascular deaths in 12 US cities. Environmental Health Perspectives 2002;110:859-63.
  25. Curriero F, Heiner K, Samet J, Zeger S, Strug L, Patz J. Temperature and mortality in 11 cities of the Eastern United States. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2002;155:80-7.
  26. Charron D, Thomas M, Waltner-Toews D, Aramini J, Edge T, Kent R, et al. Vulnerability of waterborne diseases to climate change in Canada: A review Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health - Part A - Current Issues. 2004;67(20- 22):1667-77.
  27. D'Souza R, Beeker N, Hall G, Moodie K. Does ambient temperature affect foodborne disease? Epidemiology. 2004;15(1):86-92.
  28. Martens W, Jetten T, Rotmans J, Niessen L. Climate change and vector-borne disease. Global Environmental Change. 1995;5:195.
  29. Ogden NH, Maarouf A, Barker IK, Bigras-Poulin M, Lindsay LR, Morshed MG, et al. Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada. International Journal for Parasitology. 2006;36:63-70.
  30. McMichael A. Detecting the health effects of environmental change: scientific and political challenge. EcoHealth. 2005;2:1- 3.
  31. Kovats R, Campbell-Lendrum D, McMichel A, Woodward A, Cox J-H. Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B. 2001;356:1057-68.
  32. Lindgren E, Gustafson R. Tick-borne encephalitis in Sweden and climate change. Lancet. 2001;358:16-8.
  33. Lindgren E, Talleklint L. Impact of climate change on the northern latitude limit an population densityof the disease- transmitting European tick Ixodes ricinus. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2000;108:119-23.
  34. Louis MES, Hess JJ. Climate Change Impacts on and Implications for Global Health. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(5):527-38.
  35. McMichael AJ, Friel S, Nyong A, Corvalan C. Global environmental change and health: impacts, inequalities, and the health sector. British Medical Journal. 2008;336:191-4.
  36. Furgal CM, Seguin J. Climate change, health and community adaptive capacity: lessons from the Canadian north. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2006;doi:10.1289/ehp.8433:available at Online 11 July 2006.
  37. Schmidhuber J, Tubiello F. Global food security under climate change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science. 2007;104(50):19703-08.
  38. McMichael A, Friel S, Nyong A, Corvalan C. Global environmental change and health: impacts, inequalities, and the health sector. British Medical Journal. 2008;336:191-94.
  39. Charron D. Canada's response to the potential health threats of climate change Epidemiology. 2003;14(5):S138.
  40. Charron D, Waltner-Toews D, Maarouf A. A Synopsis of Known and Potential Diseases and Parasites Associated with Climate Change, Paper. No. 154. Sault Ste. Marie, ON: Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, Ontario Forestry Research Institute; 2003.
  41. Health Canada. Canadian Climate Change and Health Vulnerability Assessment. Ottawa: Government of Canada; 2007.
  42. Lemmen D, Warren F, Lacroix J, Bush E. From impacts to adaptation: Canada in a changing climate 2007. Ottawa: Government of Canada; 2008.
  43. Mayewski PA, White F. The Ice Chronicles: The Quest to Understand Global Climate Change: University Press of New England 2002.
  44. Environment Canada. Climate Change Scenarios Network. 2004 (cited 31 August 2007); Available from:
  45. Ford JD, Smit B, Wandel J, Allurut M, Shappa K, Qrunnut K, et al. Climate change in the Arctic: Current and future vulnerability in two Inuit communities in Canada. The Geographical Journal 2008;174(1):45-62.
  46. Martello ML. Arctic indigenous peoples as representations and representatives of climate change. Social Studies of Science. 2008;38(3):351-76.
  47. Furgal C, Prowse T. Northern Canada In: Lemmen D, Warren F, Bush E, Lacroix J, eds. From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007. Ottawa Natural Resources Canada 2008.
  48. Laidler G, Ford J, Gough WA, Ikummaq T, Gagnon A, Kowal S, et al. Assessing Inuit vulnerability to sea ice change in Igloolik, Nunavut. Climatic Change. In Press In Press.
  49. Pearce T, Ford J, et al. Community collaboration and environmental change research in the Canadian Arctic. Polar Research. In Press;In Press
  50. Doyon B, Belanger D, Gosselin P. The potential impact of climate change on annual and seasonal mortality for three cities in Quebec, Canada. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2008;7:23.
  51. Koppe C, Jendritzky G, Kovats R, Menne B. Heat-waves: impacts and response. Copenhagen: World Health Organization; 2004.
  52. Kunkel K, Changnon S, Reinke B, Arritt R. The July 1995 heat wave in the Midwest: a climatic perspective and critical weather factors. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. 1996;77(7):1507-18.
  53. Bucker G. Vulnerable populations: lessons learnt from the summer 2003 heat waves in Europe. EuroSurveiallance. 2005;10(7):147.
  54. Diaz J, Garcia R, Castro Fd, Hernandez E, Lopez C, Otero A. Effects of extremely hot days on people older than 65 years in Seville (Spain) from 1986 to1997. International Journal of Biometeorology. 2002;463145-49.
  55. Berrang-Ford L, Noble D. Climate change and health in Canadian municipalities. Environmental Health Review. 2007;50(4):109-15.
  56. Charron D, Noble D. Public health implications of climate change. Municipal World. 2006;September 2006:45-6.
  57. Campbell M, Cheng C. Differential and combined impacts of winter and summer weather and air pollution due to global warming on human mortality in south-central Canada. Ottawa: Health Canada, HPRP File No. 6795-15-2001/4400011; 2005.
  58. Few R. Flooding, vulnerability and coping strategies: local responses to a global threat. Progress in Development Studies. 2003;3(1):43-58.
  59. Hunter P. Climate change and waterborne and vector-borne disease. Journal of Applied Microbiology. 2003;94:37S-46S.
  60. Thomas M, Charron D, Waltner-Toews D, Maarouf A, J Holt J- I, 167-180. The role of high impact weather in waterborne disease outbreaks in Canada. Journal Environmental Health Research. 2006;6:307.
  61. Public Health Agency of Canada. Waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis associated with a contaminated municipal water supply, Walkerton, Ontario, May-June 2000. Canada Communicable Disease Report. 2000;26(20):15 October 2000.
  62. Ford JD, Smit B, Wandel J. Vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: A case study from Arctic Bay, Canada. Global Environmental Change. 2006;16(2):145-60.
  63. Berrang-Ford L, MacLean J, Gyorkos T, Ford J, Ogden N. Climate change and malaria in Canada: a systems approach. Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Infectious Diseases. 2009;2009:385487.
  64. Nakazawa Y, Williams R, Peterson A, Mead P, Staples E, Gage K. Climate change effects on plague and tularemia in the United States. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases. 2007;7(4):529-40.
  65. Ogden NH, Maarouf A, Barker IK, Bigras-Poulin M, Lindsay LR, Morshed MG, et al. Climate change and the potential for range expansion of the Lyme disease vector Ixodes scapularis in Canada. International Journal for Parasitology. 2006;36(1):63- 70.
  66. Greer A, Ng V, Fisman D. Climate change and infectious diseases in North America: the road ahead. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2008;178(6):715-22.
  67. Rogers DJ, Packer MJ. Vector-borne diseases, models and global change. The Lancet. 1993;342:1282-4.
  68. Charron D. Potential impacts of global warming and climate change on the epidemiology of zoonotic diseases in Canada. Can J Public Health. 2002;93(5):334-35.
  69. Ogden NH, Barker IK, Beauchamp G, Brazeau S, Charron DF, Maarouf A, et al. Investigation of ground level and remote- sensed data for habitat classification and prediction of survival of Ixodes scapularis in habitats of southeastern Canada. J Med Entomol. 2006;43(2):403-14.
  70. Ogden NH, Bigras-Poulin M, O'callaghan CJ, Barker IK, Kurtenbach K, Lindsay LR, et al. Vector seasonality, host infection dynamics and fitness of pathogens transmitted by the tick Ixodes scapularis. Parasitology. 2007;134(Pt 2):209-27.
  71. Ogden NH, Trudel L, Artsob H, Barker IK, Beauchamp G, Charron DF, et al. Ixodes scapularis ticks collected by passive surveillance in Canada: analysis of geographic distribution and infection with Lyme borreliosis agent Borrelia burgdorferi. J Med Entomol. 2006;43(3):600-09.
  72. Epstein P. West Nile Virus and the Climate. Journal of Urban Health. 2001;78(2):367-71.
  73. Kunkel KE, Novak RJ, Lampman RL, Gu W. Modeling the impact of variable climatic facotrs on the crossover of Culex restauns and Cluex pipens (Diptera: culicidae), vectors of West NIle virus in Illinois. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2006;74(1):168-73.
  74. Kurz WA, Dymond CC, Stinson G, Rampley GJ, Neilson ET, Carroll AL, et al. Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature. 2008;452(7190):987-90.
  75. Tkacz B, Moody B, Castillo JV, Fenn ME. Forest health conditions in North America. Environmental Pollution. 2008;155(3):409-25.
  76. Raffia K, Aukema B, Bentz B, Carroll A, Hicke J, Turner M, et al. Cross-scale drivers of natural disturbances prone to anthropogenic amplification: the dynamics of bark beetle eruptions. Bioscience. 2008;58(6):501-17.
  77. Carroll A, Taylor S, Regniere J, Sfranyik L. Effects of climate change on range expansion by the mountain pin beetle in British Columbia. In: Shre T, Brooks J, Stone J, eds. Proceedings of the Mountain Pine Beetle Symposium: Challenges and Solutions, 30-31 October 2003, Kelowna, BC, Canada Information Report BC-X-399. Victoria, BC: Natural Resources Canada, Candian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre 2004.
  78. NR-CAN. Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation: A Canadian Perspective. Ottawa, CA: Natural Resources Canada (NR- CAN); 2007.
  79. Vescovi L, Rebetez M, Rong F. Assessing public health risk due to extremely high temperature events: climate and social parameters. Climate Research. 2005;30(1):71-8.
  80. Ebi KL, Semenza JC. Community-Based Adaptation to the Health Impacts of Climate Change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(5):501-7.
  81. Keim ME. Building Human Resilience The Role of Public Health Preparedness and Response As an Adaptation to Climate Change. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(5):508-16.
  82. Frumkin H, McMichael AJ, Hess JJ. Climate Change and the Health of the Public. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2008;35(5):401-2.
  83. Furgal C, Seguin J. Climate change, health, and vulnerability in Canadian Northern Aboriginal communities. Environmental Health Perspectives 2006;114:1964-70.
  84. Martin D, Belanger D, Gosselin P, Brazeau J, Furgal C, Dery S. Drinking water and potential threats to human health in Nunavik: Adaptation strategies under climate change conditions. Arctic. 2007;60(2):195-202.
  85. Tong S, Mackenzie J, Pitman A, FitzGerald G, Nicholls N, Selvey L. Global climate change: time to mainstream health risk and their prevention on the medical research and policy agenda. Internal Medicine Journal. 2008;386a(445-47).
  86. Campbell-Lendrum D, Corvalan C, Neira M. Global cliamte change: implications for international public health policy. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85(3):161-244.
  87. Ford JD, Pearce T, Smit B, Wandel J, Allurut M, Shappa K, et al. Reducing vulnerability to climate change in the Arctic: the case of Nunavut, Canada. Arctic 2007;60(2):150-66.
  88. Pielke RA, Prins G, Rayner S, Sarewitz D. Climate change 2007: Lifting the taboo on adaptation. Nature. 2007;445:597-8. Seville (Spain) from 1986 to1997. International Journal of Biometeorology. 2002;463145-49.
  89. Smit B, Wandel J. Adaptation, adaptive capacity, and vulnerability. Global Environmental Change. 2006;16:282-92.
  90. Infrastructure Canada. Adapting infrastructure to climate change in Canada's cities and communities: a literature review.: Available at: 12_02-eng.pdf; 2006.
  91. Natural Resources Canada Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Directorate. Adapting to Climate Change: An Introduction for Canadian Municipalities. Ottawa, Canada: Natural Resources Canada 2006.
  92. Smit B, Pilifosova O. From adaptation to adaptive capacity and vulnerability reduction. In: Smith J, Klein RTJ, Huq S, eds. Climate change, adaptive capacity, and development. London: Imperial College Press 2003:356.
  93. Gupta A, Moyer C, Sterm D. The economic impact of quarantine: SARS in Toronto as a case study. Journal of Infection. 2004;50(5):386-93.
  94. Varia M, Wilson S, Sarwal S, McGeer A, Gournis E, Galanis E, et al. Investigation of a nosocomial outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in Toronoto, Canada. Canadian Medical Association Journal. 2003;169(4):285-92.
  95. Newman R, Barber A, Roberts J, Holtz T, Steketee R, Parise M. Malaria Surveillance -- United States, 1999. MMWR. 2002;51(SS01):15-28.
  96. Johnston B, Conly J. West Nile virus - where did it come from and where might it go? Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2000;11(4):175-78.
  97. Feldmann H, Czub M, Jones S, Dick D, Garbutt M, Grolla A, et al. Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Mecial Microbiology and Immunology. 2002;191:63-74.
  98. MacLean JD, Demers AM, Ndao M, Kokoskin E, Ward BJ, Gyorkos TW. Malaria epidemics and surveillance in Canada. Emerging Infect Dis. 2004;10(7):1195-201.
  99. Bouma M, Kaay Hvd. The El Niño Southern Oscillation and the historic malaria epidemics on the Indian subcontinent and Sri Lanka: an early warning system for future epidemics? Tropical Medicine and International Health. 1996(86-96).
  100. Bouma M, Dye C, Kaay Hvd. Falciparum malaria and climate change in the northwest frontier province of Pakistan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1996;55(2):131-7.
  101. Stern N. Stern Review on the Economics of Climate Change. London, UK: HM Treasury. Available at:; 2006.
  102. CNA/CMA. Joint CNA/CMA Position Statement on Environmentally Responsible Activity in the Health Sector.: Canadian Nurses Association (CNA) and the Canadian Medical Association (CMA). Available at: http://www.cna- ir_Resp_Activity_Health_Sector_Feb_2006_e.pdf 2005.
  103. World Bank. Health, Nutrition and Population (HNP) Stats. 2005 (cited 24 Feb. 09); Available from:


Download data is not yet available.