Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Narrative Review

Vol. 3 No. 1 (1997)

Gilles de la Tourette's Syndrome: Genetics and Dopamine

  • Graham Wood, B.Sc.
DOI
https://doi.org/10.26443/mjm.v3i1.479
Submitted
November 1, 2020
Published
2020-12-01

Abstract

N/A

References

  1. Itard JMG. Memoire sur quelques fonction involontaires des appareils de la locomotion de la prehension et de la voix. Archives of General Medicine 8: 385; 1825.
  2. Gilles de la Tourette. Etude sur une affection nerveuse caracterisee par de l'incoordination motrice accompagnee d'echolalie et de coprolalie. Archives of Neurology (Paris) 9: 19-42, 158-200; 1885.
  3. Koester, G. Uber die maladie des tics impulsifs. Deutsch Z Nervenheilk 15: 147; 1889.
  4. Charbbert, L. De la maladie des tics. Archives of Neurology (Paris) 25: 10-41; 1893.
  5. Eldridge R, Sweet R, Lake R, et al. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: Clinical, genetic, psychologic, and biochemical aspects in 21 selected families. Neurology 27(2): 115-124; 1977.
  6. Sacks DW, Shapiro ES, Young JG, et al., eds. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. New York: Raven Press; 1988.
  7. Seignot JN. Un cas de maladie des tics de Gilles de la Tourette querri par le R1625. Annales de Medico- Psychologiques (Paris) 119: 578-579; 1961.
  8. Caprini G, Mellotti V. Un garva sindrome toccosa guarita con haloperidol. Rivista Sperimentale di Freniatria e Medicina Legale Delle Alienazioni Mentali 85: 191; 1961.
  9. Challas G, Brauer W. Tourette's disease: Relief of symptoms with R1625. American Journal of Psychiatry 120: 283-284; 1963.
  10. Seeman P, Chau-Wong M, Tedesco J, et al. Brain receptors for antipsychotic drugs and dopamine: direct binding assays. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 72(11): 4376-4380; 1975.
  11. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition. American Psychiatric Association, Washington; 1994.
  12. Singer HS, Walkup JT. Tourette Syndrome and other tic disorders: Diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment. Medicine 70(1): 15-32; 1991.
  13. Bruun RD. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: an overview of clinical experience. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 23(2): 126-133; 1984.
  14. Caine ED, McBride MC, Chiverton P, et al. Tourette syndrome in Monroe County school children. Neurology 38: 472-475; 1988.
  15. Sandor P. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: A neuropsychiatric disorder. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 37(3): 211-226; 1993.
  16. Golden GS, Hood OJ. Tics and Tremors. Pediatric Clinics of North America 29(1): 95-103; 1982.
  17. Shapiro AK, Shapiro ES, Wayne HL. The symptomatology and diagnosis of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 12(4): 702-723; 1973.
  18. Suchowersky O. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences 21: 48-52; 1994.
  19. Comings DE, Comings BG. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. IV Obsessions, compulsions and schizoid behaviors. American Journal of Human Genetics 41(5): 782-803; 1987.
  20. Pitman RK, Green RC, Jenike MA, et al. Clinical comparison of Tourette disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 144(9): 1166-1171; 1987.
  21. Obeso JA, Rothwelll JC, Marsden CD. The neurophysiology of Tourette syndrome. In: Friedhoff AJ, Chase TN, editors. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. New York: Raven Press; 1982.
  22. Kidd KK, Prusoff BA, Cohen DJ. The familial pattern of Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry 37(12): 1336-1339; 1980.
  23. Pauls DL, Cohen DJ, Heimbuch RC, et al. Familial pattern and transmission of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome and multiple tics. Archives of General Psychiatry 38(10): 1091-1093; 1981.
  24. Baron M, Shapiro E, Sapiro A, et al. Genetic analysis of Tourette syndrome suggesting major gene effect. American Journal of Human Genetics 33(5): 767-775; 1981.
  25. Kidd KK, Pauls DL. Genetic hypotheses for Tourette syndrome. In: Friedhoff AJ, Chase TN, editors. Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome. New York: Raven Press; 1982.
  26. Comings DE, Comings BG, Devor EJ, et al. Detection of major gene for Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Human Genetics 36(3): 586-600; 1984.
  27. Devor EJ. Complex segregation analysis of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome: further evidence for a major locus mode of transmission. American Journal of Human Genetics 36(3): 704-709; 1984.
  28. Price RA, Pauls DL, Caine ED. Pedigree and segregation analysis of clinical defined subgroups of Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Human Genetics 36(4:Suppl): 178S (abstract); 1984.
  29. Pauls DL, Leckman JF. The inheritance of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and associated behaviors: Evidence for autosomal dominant transmission. New England Journal of Medicine 315(16): 993-997; 1986.
  30. Pauls DL, Raymond CL, Stevenson J, et al. A family study of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Human Genetics 48: 154-163; 1991.
  31. Walkup JT, Labuda MC, Singer HS, et al. Family study and segregation analysis of Tourette syndrome: evidence for a mixed model of inheritance. American Journal of Human Genetics 59 (3): 684-693; 1996
  32. Comings DE, Wu S, Chiu C, et al. Polygenic inheritance of Tourette syndrome, stuttering, attention deficit hyperactivity, conduct and oppositional defiant disorder: the additive and subtractive effect of the three dopaminergic genes, DRD2, D-Beta-H and DAT1. American1 Journal of Medical Genetics 67(3): 264-288; 1996.
  33. Pauls DL, Kruger SD, Leckman JF, et al. The risk of Tourette's syndrome and chronic multiple tics among relatives of Tourette's syndrome patients obtained by direct interview. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 23(2): 134-137; 1984.
  34. Comings DE, Comings BG. Tourette's syndrome and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: are they genetically related. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 23(2): 138-146; 1984.
  35. Comings DE, Comings BG. A controlled study of Tourette syndrome: I. Attention deficit disorder, learning disorders and school problems. American Journal of Human Genetics 41(5): 701-741; 1987.
  36. Pauls DL, Towbin KE, Leckman JF, et al. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder: evidence supporting a genetic relationship. Archives of Geneeral Psychiatry 43(12): 1180-1182; 1986.
  37. Pauls DL, Pakstis AJ, Kurlan R, et al. Segregation and linkage analyses of Tourette's syndrome and related disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolecent Psychiatry 29(2): 195-203; 1990.
  38. Pauls DL, Hurst CR, Kruger SD, et al. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome and attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity: evidence against a genetic relationship. Archives of General Psychiatry 43(12): 1177-1179; 1986.
  39. Jenkins RL, Ashby HB. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in identical twins. Archives of Neurology 40(4): 249-251; 1983.
  40. Price RA, Kidd KK, Cohen DJ, et al. A twin study of Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry 42(8): 815-820; 1985.
  41. Hyde TM, Aaronson BA, Randolph C, et al. Relationship of birth weight to the phenotypic expression of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome in monozygotic twins. Neurology 42(3 Pt 1): 652-658; 1992.
  42. Shapiro E, Shapiro AK, Fulop G, et al. Controlled study of haloperidol, pimozide and placebo for the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry 46(8): 722-730; 1989.
  43. Nyback H, Schubert J, Sedvall G. Effect of apomorphine and pimozide on synthesis and turnover of labeled catecholamines in mouse brain. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 22(8): 622-624; 1970.
  44. Butler IJ, Koslow SH, Seifert WE, et al. Biogenic amine metabolism in Tourette syndrome. Annals of Neurology 6(1): 37-39; 1979.
  45. Riddle MA, Leckman, JF, Anderson GM, et al. Plasma MHPG: Within- and across-day stability in children and adults with Tourette's syndrome. Biological Psychiatry 24(4):391-398; 1988.
  46. Riddle MA, Leckman JF, Anderson GM, et al. Tourette's syndrome and associated disorders: clinical and neurochemical correlates. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 27(6): 409-412; 1988
  47. Silverstein F, Smith CB, Johnston MV. Effect of clonidine on platelet alpha2-adrenoreceptors and plasma norepinephrine of children with Tourette's syndrome. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 27(6): 739-799; 1985.
  48. Singer HS, Hahn I-H, Krowiak E, et al. Tourette syndrome: A neurochemical analysis of postmortem cortical brain tissue. Annals of Neurology 27(4): 443-446; 1990.
  49. Lichter DG, Jackson LA. Predictors of clonidine response in Tourette syndrome: implications and inferences. Journal of Child Neurology 11(2): 93-97.
  50. Cohen DJ, Detlor J, Young JG, et al. Clonidine ameliorates Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. Archives of General Psychiatry 37(12): 1350-1357; 1980.
  51. Leckman JF, Detlor J, Harvherik DF, et al. Short and long-term treatment of Tourette's syndrome with clonidine: a clinical perspective. Neurology 35(3): 343-351; 1985.
  52. Shapiro AK, Shapiro E, Eisenkraft GJ. Treatment of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome with clonidine and neuroleptics. Archives of General Psychiatry 40(11): 1235-1243; 1983.
  53. Knesevich JW. Successful treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder with clonidine hydrochloride. American Journal of Psychiatry 139(3): 364-365; 1982.
  54. Goetz CG, Tanner CM, Wilson RS, et al. Clonidine and Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: Double blind study using objective rating methods. Annals of Neurology 21(3): 307-310; 1987.
  55. Shapiro AK, Shapiro E. Controlled study of pimozole vs placebo in Tourette's syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry 23(2): 161-173; 1984.
  56. Ross MS, Moldofsky H. A comparison of pimozide and haloperidol in the treatment of Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry 135(5): 585-587; 1978.
  57. Jankovic J, Glaze DG, Frost JD. Effects of tetrabenazine on tics and sleep of Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome. Neurology 34(5): 688-692; 1984.
  58. Sweet RD, Brunn RD, Shapiro E, et al. Presynaptic catecholamine antagonist as a treatment for Tourette syndrome. Effects of alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine and tetrabenazine. Archives of General Psychiatry 31(6): 857-861; 1974.
  59. Klawans HL, Falk DK, Nausieda PA, et al. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome after long-term chlorpromazine therapy. Neurology 28(10): 1064-1066; 1978.
  60. Golden GS. The effect of central nervous system stimulants on Tourette syndrome. Annals of Neurology 2(1): 69-70; 1977.
  61. Golden GS. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome following methylphenidate administration. Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology 16(1): 76-78; 1974.
  62. Price RA, Leckman JF, Pauls DL, et al. Gilles de la Tourette's syndrome: tics and central nervous system stimulants in twins and nontwins. Neurology 36(2): 232-237; 1986.
  63. Factor SA, Sanchez-Ramos JR, Weiner W. Cocaine and Tourette's syndrome. Annals of Neurology 23(4): 423-424; 1988.
  64. Mesulam MM. Cocaine and Tourette's syndrome. New England Journal of Medicine 315(6): 398; 1986.
  65. Peterson B, Riddle MA, Cohen DJ, et al. Reduced basal ganglia volumes in Tourette's syndrome using three-dimensional reconstruction techniques from magnetic resonance images. Neurology 43(5):941-949; 1993.
  66. Singer HS, Reiss AL, Brown JE, et al. Volumetric MRI changes in basal ganglia of children with Tourette's syndrome. Neurology 43(5): 950-956; 1993.
  67. Hyde TM, Stacey ME, Coppola R, et al. Cerebral morphometric abnormalities in Tourette's syndrome: a quantitative MRI study of monozygotic twins. Neurology 45(6): 1176-1182; 1995
  68. Singer HS, Hahn I-H, Moran TH. Abnormal dopamine uptake sites in postmortem striatum from patients with Tourette's syndrome. Annals of Neurology 30(4): 558-562; 1991.
  69. Aylward EH, Reiss AL, Reader MJ, et al. Basal ganglia volumes in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Child Neurology 11(2): 112-115; 1996.
  70. Wong D, Singer H, Marenco S, et al. Dopamine transporter reuptake sites measured by [11C]WIN 35,428 PET imaging are elevated in Tourette syndrome. Journal of Nuclear Medicine 35: 130P (abstract); 1994.
  71. Malison RT, McDougle CJ, van Dyck CH, et al. [123I](-CIT SPECT imaging of striatal dopamine transporter binding in Tourette's disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry 152(9): 1359-1361; 1995.
  72. Turjanski N, Sawle GV, Playford ED, et al. PET studies of the presynaptic and postsynaptic dopaminergic system in Tourette's syndrome. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry 57(6): 688-692; 1994.
  73. Wolf SS, Jones DW, Knable MB, et al. Tourette syndrome: prediction of phenotypic variation in monozygotic twins by caudate nucleus D2 receptor binding. Science 273(5279): 1225-1227; 1996.
  74. Côté L, Cruchter MD. The Basal Ganglia. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, eds. Principles of Neural Science, 3rd Ed. New York: Elsevier; 1991.
  75. McDougle CJ, Goodman WK, Price LH. Dopamine antagonists in tic-related and psychotic spectrum obsessive compulsive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 55 (suppl.): 24-31; 1994.
  76. Jackson CW. Obsessive-compulsive disorder in elderly patients. Drugs & Aging 7(6): 438-448; 1995.
  77. Carpenter LL, McDougle CJ, Epperson CN, Price LH. A risk-benefit assessment of drugs used in the management of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Drug Safety 15(2): 116-134; 1996.
  78. Gelernter J, Kennedy JL, Grandy DK, et al. Exclusion of close linkage of Tourette's syndrome to D1 dopamine receptor. American Journal of Psychiatry 150(3): 449-453; 1993.
  79. Gelernter J, Pakstis AJ, Pauls DL, et al. Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is not linked to D2-dopamine receptor. Archives of General Psychiatry 47(11): 1073-1077.
  80. Devor EJ, Grandy DK, Civelli O, et al. Genetic linkage is excluded for the D2-dopamine receptor (HD2G1 and flanking loci on chromosome 11q22-q23 in Tourette syndrome. Human Heredity 40(2): 105-108; 1990.
  81. Brett PM, Curtis D, Robertson MM, et al. The genetic susceptibility to Gilles de la Tourette syndrome in a large multiple affected British kindred liinkage analysis excludes a role for the genes coding for dopamine D1, D2, D3, D4, D5 receptors, dopamine beta hydroxyase, tyrosinase and tyrosine hydroxylase. Biological Psychiatry 37(8): 533-540; 1995.
  82. Barr CL, Wigg KG, Zovko E, et al. No evidence for a major gene effect of the dopamine D-4 receptor gene in the susceptibility to Gilles Tourette syndrome in five Canadian families. American Journal of Medical Genetics 67(3): 301-305; 1996.
  83. Grice DE, Leckman JF, Pauls DL, et al. Linkage disequilibrium between an allele at the dopamine D4 receptor locus and Tourette syndrome, by the transmission-disequilibrium test. American Journal of Human Genetics 59(3): 644-652; 1996.

Metrics

Metrics Loading ...