Approach to Acute Kidney Injury
Acute kidney injury is defined as an abrupt decline in kidney function, which manifests as an increase in serum creatinine level or a decrease in urine output within a short period of time. It is a commonly encountered entity in the clinical setting and necessitates a systematic diagnostic approach. Acute kidney injury etiologies are classified as either prerenal, intrinsic renal, or postrenal. This article presents the key elements of history taking, physical examination, and laboratory investigations when assessing a patient for acute kidney injury to properly classify its etiology. The use of imaging modalities is also discussed. Common etiologies of acute kidney injury in each category are highlighted. Lastly, this article provides a brief overview of management principles for acute kidney injury with a particular emphasis on indications for initiation of dialysis.
- Makris K, Spanou L. Acute Kidney Injury: Definition, Pathophysiology and Clinical Phenotypes. Clin Biochem Rev. 2016;37(2):85-98.
- Jameson JL, Kasper DL, Longo DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Loscalzo J. Harrison's principles of internal medicine. 20th edition. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Education; 2018.
- Gilbert SJ, Weiner DE, Bomback AS, Perazella MA, Tonelli M, National Kidney F. National Kidney Foundation's primer on kidney diseases. Philadelphia, PA [New York City, NY]: Elsevier; National Kidney Foundation; 2017.
- Rahman M, Shad F, Smith MC. Acute kidney injury: a guide to diagnosis and management. Am Fam Physician. 2012;86(7):631-9.
- Lerma EV, Sparks MA, Topf JM. Nephrology secrets. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2019.
- Kodner CM, Kudrimoti A. Diagnosis and management of acute interstitial nephritis. Am Fam Physician. 2003;67(12):2527-34.
- Canpolat N. Hemolytic uremic syndrome. Turk Pediatri Ars. 2015;50(2):73-82.
- Mathew AJ, George J. Acute kidney injury in the tropics. Ann Saudi Med. 2011;31(5):451-6.
Download data is not yet available.