Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Narrative Review

Vol. 2 No. 1 (1996)

A Review of the Actions of D-cycloserine, a Putative Nootropic Agent, at the NMDA Receptor Complex-Associated Glycine Binding Site

November 8, 2020




  1. Fonnum F, Myhrer T, Paulsen RE, et al. Role of glutamate and glutamate receptors in memory function and Alzheimer's disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 757: 475-486; 1995.
  2. Mandell GL, Sande MA. Antimicrobial agents. In: Gilman AG, Rall TW, Nies AS, Taylor P, eds. Goodman and Gilman's the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 8th edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.; 1990.
  3. Hood WF, Compton RP, Monahan JB. D-cycloserine: a ligand for the N-methyl-D-aspartate coupled glycine receptor has partial agonist characteristics. Neuroscience Letters 98(1): 91-95; 1989.
  4. Kutsuwada T, Kashiwabuchi N, Mori H, et al. Molecular diversity of the NMDA receptor channel. Nature 358(6381):36-41; 1992.
  5. McBain CJ, Mayer ML. N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor structure and function. Physiological Reviews 74(3): 723-760; 1994.
  6. Meguro H, Mori H, Araki K, et al. Functional characterization of a heteromeric NMDA receptor channel expressed from cloned cDNAs. Nature 357(6373): 70-74; 1992.
  7. Vogel W, Broverman DM, Draguns JG. The role of glutamic acid in cognitive behaviors. Psychology Bulletin 65(6): 367-382; 1966.
  8. Zimmerman GT, Ross S. Effect of glutamic acid and other amino acids on maze learning in the rat. Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry 51: 446-451; 1944.
  9. Bliss TV, Lomo T. Long-lasting potentiation of synaptic transmission in the dentate area of the anaesthetized rabbit following stimulation of the perforant path. Journal of Physiology (London) 232(2): 331- 356; 1973.
  10. Artola A, Singer W. Long term potentiation and NMDA receptors in rat visual cortex. Nature 330(6149): 649-652; 1987.
  11. Collingridge GL, Kehl SH, McLennan H. Excitatory amino acids in synaptic transmission in the Schaffer collateral-commissural pathway of the rat hippocampus. Journal of Physiology 334: 33-46; 1983.
  12. Gozlan H, Khazipov R, Ben-Ari Y. Multiple forms of long-term potentiation and multiple regulatory sites of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors: role of the redox site. Journal of Neurobiology 26(3): 360-369; 1995.
  13. Harris EW, Ganong AH, Cotman CW. Long-term potentiation in the hippocampus involves activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Brain Research 323(1): 132-137; 1984.
  14. Bliss TV, Collingridge GL. A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361(6407): 31-39; 1993.
  15. Heale V, Harley C. MK-801 and AP-5 impair acquisition, but not retention, of the Morris milk maze. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 36(1): 145-149; 1990.
  16. Malenfant SA, O'Hearn S, Fleming AS. MK-801, an NMDA antagonist, blocks acquisition of a spatial task but does not block maternal experience effects. Physiology and Behavior 49(6): 1129-1137; 1991.
  17. Morris RGM, Anderson E, Lynch GS, et al. Selective impairment of learning and blockade of long-term potentiation by an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, AP5. Nature 319(6056): 774-776; 1986.
  18. Watkins JC, Evans RH. Excitatory amino acid transmitters. Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology 21: 165-204; 1981.
  19. Dingledine R, Kleckner NW, McBain CJ. The glycine coagonist site of the NMDA receptor. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 268: 17-26; 1990.
  20. Mayer ML, Vyklicky L Jr, Clements J. Regulation of NMDA receptor desensitization in mouse hippocampal neurons by glycine. Nature 338(6214): 425-427; 1989.
  21. Vyklicky L Jr, Benveniste M, Mayer ML. Modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor desensitization by glycine in mouse cultured hippocampal neurones. Journal of Physiology 428: 313-331; 1990.
  22. Pittaluga A, Fedele E, Risiglione C, et al. Age-related decrease of the NMDA receptor-mediated noradrenaline release in rat hippocampus and partial restoration by D-cycloserine. European Journal of Pharmacology 231(1): 129-134; 1993.
  23. Bristow DR, Bowery NG, Woodruff GN. Light microscopic autoradiographic localization of [3H]glycine and [3H]strychnine binding sites in rat brain. European Journal of Pharmacology 126(3): 303-307; 1986.
  24. Johnson JW, Ascher P. Glycine potentiates the NMDA response in cultured mouse brain neurons. Nature 325(6104): 529-531; 1987.
  25. Kemp JA, Leeson PD. The glycine site of the NMDA receptor​five years on. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 14(1): 20-25; 1993.
  26. Kleckner NW, Dingledine R. Requirement for glycine in activation of NMDA-receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Science 241(4867): 835-837; 1988.
  27. Lehmann J, Colpaert F, Canton H. Glutamate and glycine co-activate while polyamines merely modulate the NMDA receptor complex. Progress in Neuropsychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 15(2):183- 190; 1991.
  28. Hood WF, Compton RP, Monahan JB. N-methyl-D-aspartate recognition site ligands modulate activity at the glycine recognition site. Journal of Neurochemistry 54(3): 1040-1046; 1990.
  29. Layer RT, Bland LR, Skolnick P. MK-801, but not drugs acting at strychnine-insensitive glycine receptors, attenuate methamphetamine nigrostriatal toxicity. Brain Research 625(1): 38-44; 1993.
  30. Benveniste MJ, Clements L, Vyklicky L, et al. A kinetic analysis of the modulation of N-methyl-D- aspartic acid receptors by glycine in mouse cultured hippocampal neurones. Journal of Physiology (London) 428: 333-357; 1990.
  31. Benveniste M, Mayer ML. Kinetic analysis of antagonist action at N-methyl-D-aspartatic acid receptors. Two binding sites each for glutamate and glycine. Biophysical Journal 59(3): 560-573; 1991.
  32. Clements JD, Westbrook GL. Activation kinetics reveal the number of glutamate and glycine binding sites on the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Neuron 7(4): 605-613; 1991.
  33. Patneau DK, Mayer ML. Structure-activity relationships for amino acid transmitter candidates acting at N-methyl-D-aspartate and quisqualate receptors. Journal of Neuroscience 10(7): 2385-2399; 1990.
  34. Moriyoshi K, Masu M, Ishii T, et al. Molecular cloning and characterization of the rat NMDA receptor. Nature 354(6348): 31-37; 1991.
  35. Kessler M, Terramani T, Lynch G, et al. A glycine site associated with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors: characterization and identification of a new class of antagonists. Journal of Neurochemistry 52(4): 1319-1328; 1989.
  36. Monahan JB, Biesterfeldt JP, Hood WF, et al. Differential modulation of the associated glycine recognition site by competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists. Molecular Pharmacology 37(6): 780-784; 1990.
  37. Ransom RW, Deschenes NL. Polyamines regulate glycine interaction with the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Synapse 5(4): 294-298; 1990.
  38. Fadda E, Danysz W, Wroblewski JT, et al. Glycine and D-serine increase the affinity of N-methyl-D- aspartate sensitive glutamate binding sites in rat brain synaptic membranes. Neuropharmacology 27(11): 1183-1185; 1988.
  39. Monaghan DT, Olverman HJ, Nguyen L, et al. Two classes of N-methyl-D-aspartate recognition sites: differential distribution and differential regulation by glycine. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 85(24): 9836-9840; 1988.
  40. Ascher P. Measuring and controlling the extracellular glycine concentration at the NMDA receptor level. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 268: 13-16; 1990.
  41. Salt TE. Modulation of NMDA receptor-mediated responses by glycine and D-serine in the rat thalamus in vivo. Brain Research 481(2): 403-406; 1989.
  42. Fletcher EJ, Lodge D. Glycine reverses antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) by 1-hydoxy-3- aminopyrrolidone-2 (HA-966) but not by D-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (D-AP5) on rat cortical slices. European Journal of Pharmacology 151(1): 161-162; 1988.
  43. Thomson AM, Walker VE, Flynn DM. Glycine enhances NMDA-receptor mediated synaptic potentials in neocortical slices. Nature 338(6214): 422-424; 1989.
  44. Gaiarsa JL, Corradetti R, Cherubini E, et al. The allosteric glycine site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor modulates GABAergic-mediated synaptic events in neonatal rat CA3 hippocampal neurons. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 87(1): 343-346; 1990.
  45. D'Angelo E, Rossi P, Garthwaite J. Dual-component NMDA receptor currents at a single central synapse. Nature 346(6283): 467-470; 1990.
  46. Danysz W, Wroblewski JT, Brooker G, et al. Modulation of glutamate receptors by phencyclidine and glycine in the rat cerebellum: cGMP increase in vivo. Brain Research 479(2): 270-276; 1989.
  47. Emmett MR, Mick SJ, Cler JA, et al. Actions of D-cycloserine at the N-methyl-D-aspartate-associated glycine receptor site in vivo. Neuropharmacology 27: 1183-1185; 1991.
  48. Wood PL, Emmett MR, Rao TS, et al. In vivo modulation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor complex by D-serine: potentiation of ongoing neuronal activity as evidenced by increased cerebellar cyclic GMP. Journal of Neurochemistry 53(3): 979-981; 1989.
  49. Singh L, Oles RJ, Tricklebank MD. Modulation of seizure susceptibility in the mouse by the strychnine- insensitive glycine recognition site of the NMDA receptor/ion channel complex. British Journal of Pharmacology 99(2): 285-288; 1990.
  50. Smith KE, Borden LA, Hartig PR, et al. Cloning and expression of a glycine transporter reveal colocalization with NMDA receptors. Neuron 8(5): 927-935; 1992.
  51. Gu Y, Huang L-YM. Modulation of glycine affinity for NMDA receptors by extracellular Ca2+ in trigeminal neurons. Journal of Neuroscience 14(7): 4561-4570; 1994.
  52. Pitkanen M, Sirvio J, Lahtinen H, et al. D-cycloserine, a partial agonist at the glycine site, enhances the excitability of dentate granule cells in vivo in rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 253(1-2): 125-129; 1994.
  53. Yoneda Y, Ogita K. Heterogeneity of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor ionophore complex in rat brain, as revealed by ligand binding techniques. Journal of Pharmacological Experimental Therapeutics 259(1): 86- 96; 1991.
  54. Lehman JC, Procureur D, Wood PL. 7-chlorokynurenate prevents NMDA-induced and kainate-induced striatal lesions. Brain Research 620(1): 1-6; 1993.
  55. O'Shea RD, Manallack DT, Conway EL, et al. Evidence for heterogenous glycine domains but conserved multiple states of the excitatory amino acid recognition site of the NMDA receptor: regional binding studies with [3H]glycine and [3H]L-glutamate. Experimental Brain Research 86(3): 652-662; 1991.
  56. Wlaz P, Baran H, Loscher W. Effect of the glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist, D-cycloserine, on seizure threshold and some pharmacodynamic effects of MK-801 in mice. European Journal of Pharmacology 257(3): 217-225; 1994.
  57. Croucher MJ, Bradford HF. The influence of strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor agonists and antagonists on generalized seizure thresholds. Brain Research 543(1): 91-96; 1991.
  58. Koek W, Colpaert FC. Selective blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced convulsions by NMDA antagonists and putative glycine antagonists: relationship with phencyclidine-like behavioral effects. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 252(1): 349-357; 1990.
  59. Singh L, Donald AE, Foster AC, et al. Enantiomers of HA-966 (3-amino-1-hydroxypyrrolid-2-one) exhibit distinct central nervous system effects: (+)-HA-966 is a selective glycine/N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, but (-)-HA-966 is a potent gamma-butyrolactone-like sedative. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (USA) 87(1): 347-351; 1990.
  60. Priestley T, Horne AL, McKernan RM, et al. The effect of NMDA receptor glycine site antagonists on hypoxia-induced neurodegeneration of rat cortical cell cultures. Brain Research 531(1-2): 183-188; 1990.
  61. Dunn RW, Flanagan DM, Martin LL, et al. Stereoselective R-(+) enantiomer of HA-966 displays anxiolytic effects in rodents. European Journal of Pharmacology 214: 207-214; 1992.
  62. Kehne JH, McCloskey TC, Baron BM, et al. NMDA receptor complex antagonists have potential anxiolytic effects as measured with separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations. European Journal of Pharmacology 193(2): 283-292; 1991.
  63. Olney JW, Labruyere J, Price MT. Pathological changes induced in cerebrocortical neurons by phencyclidine and related drugs. Science 244(4910): 1360-1362; 1989.
  64. Olney JW, Labruyere J, Wang G, et al. NMDA antagonist neurotoxicity: mechanism and prevention. Science 254(5037): 1515-1518; 1991.
  65. Bowen, DM. Treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Molecular pathology versus neurotransmitter-based therapy. British Journal of Psychiatry 157: 327-330; 1990.
  66. Quatermain D, Mower J, Rafferty MF, et al. Acute but not chronic activation of the NMDA-coupled glycine receptor with D-cycloserine facilitates learning and retention. European Journal of Pharmacology 257(1-2): 7-12; 1994.
  67. Rupniak NM, Duchnowski M, Tye SJ, et al. Failure of D-cycloserine to reverse cognitive disruption induced by scopolamine or phencyclidine in primates. Life Sciences 50(25): 1959-1962; 1992.
  68. Muller WE, Scheuer K, Stoll S. Glutamatergic treatment strategies for age-related memory disorders. Life Sciences 55(25-26): 2147-2153; 1994.
  69. Berger P, Farrel K, Sharp F, et al. Drugs acting at the strychnine-insensitive glycine receptor do not induce HSP-70 protein in the cingulate cortex. Neuroscience Letters 168(1-2): 147-150; 1994.
  70. Carlsson M, Carlsson A. Interaction between glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems within the basal ganglia--implications for schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. Trends in Neuroscience 13(7): 272-276; 1990.
  71. Peterson SL. Localization of an anatomic substrate for the anticonvulsant activity induced by D- cycloserine. Epilepsia 35(5): 933-938; 1994.
  72. Monahan JB, Handelmann GE, Hood WF, et al. D-cycloserine, a positive modulator of the N-methyl-D- aspartate receptor, enhances performance of learning tasks in rats. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 34(3): 649-653; 1989.
  73. Priestley T, Kemp JA. Kinetic study of the interactions between the glutamate and glycine recognition sites on the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor complex. Molecular Pharmacology 46(6): 1191-1196; 1994.
  74. Watson GB, Bolanowski MA, Baganoff MP, et al. D-cycloserine acts as a partial agonist at the glycine modulatory site of the NMDA receptor expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Brain Research 510(1): 158-160; 1990.
  75. Henderson G, Johnson JW, Ascher P. Competitive antagonists and partial agonists at the glycine modulatory site of the mouse N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Journal of Physiology (London) 430: 189-212; 1990.
  76. Baran H, Gramer M, Loscher W. Alterations in plasma and brain amino acids after administration of the glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist, D-cycloserine, to mice and rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 273(1-2): 197-201; 1995.
  77. Cascella NG, Macciardi F, Cavallini C, et al. D-cycloserine adjuvant therapy to conventional neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenia: an open-label study. Journal of Neural Transmission​General Section 95(2): 105- 111; 1994.
  78. Conzelman GM Jr, Jones RK. On physiological disposition of cycloserine in experimental animals. The American Review of Tuberculosis and Pulmonary Diseases 74: 802-806; 1956.
  79. Baran H, Loscher W, Mevissen M. The glycine/NMDA receptor partial agonist D-cycloserine blocks kainate-induced seizures in rats. Comparison with MK-801 and diazepam. Brain Research 652(2): 195-200; 1994.
  80. Millan MJ, Seguin L. Chemically-diverse ligands at the glycine B site coupled to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors selectively block the late phase of formalin-induced pain in mice. Neuroscience Letters 178(1): 139-143; 1994.
  81. Peterson SL. 7-Chlorokynurenic acid antagonizes the anticonvulsant activity of D-cycloserine in maximal electroshock seizures. Epilepsy Research 13(1): 73-81; 1992.
  82. Storey PB, McLean Rl. A current appraisal of cycloserine. Antibiotic Medicine and Clinical Threapy 4: 223-232; 1957.
  83. Khanna JM, Kalant H, Shah G, et al. Effect of D-cycloserine on rapid tolerance to ethanol. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 45(4): 983-986; 1993.
  84. McAllister KH. D-cycloserine enhances social behaviour in individually-housed mice in the resident- intruder test. Psychopharmacology 116(3): 317-325; 1994.
  85. Boje KM, Wong G, Skolnick P. Desensitization of the NMDA receptor complex by glycinergic ligands in cerebellar granule cell cultures. Brain Research 603(2): 207-214; 1993.
  86. Anthony EW, Nevins ME. Anxiolytic-like effects of N-methyl-D-aspartate-associated glycine receptor ligands in the rat potentiated startle test. European Journal of Pharmacology 250(2): 317-324; 1993.
  87. Faiman CP, Viu E, Skolnick P, et al. Differential effects of compounds that act at strychnine-insensitive glycine receptors in a punishment procedure. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 270(2): 528-533; 1994.
  88. Norris DO, Mastropaolo J, O'Connor DA, et al. A glycinergic intervention potentiates the antiseizure efficacies of MK-801, flurazepam, and carbamazepine. Neurochemistry Research 19(2): 161-165; 1994.
  89. Peterson SL, Schwade ND. The anticonvulsant activity of D-cycloserine is specific for tonic convulsions. Epilepsy Research 15(2): 141-148; 1993.
  90. Loscher W, Wlaz P, Rundfeldt C, et al. Anticonvulsant effects of the glycine/NMDA receptor ligands D- cycloserine and D-serine but not R-(+)-HA-966 in amygdala-kindled rats. British Journal of Pharmacology 112(1): 97-106; 1994.
  91. Runfeldt C, Wlaz P, Loscher W. Anticonvulsant activity of antagonists and partial agonists for the NMDA receptor-associated glycine site in the kindling model of epilepsy. Brain Research 653(1-2): 125-130; 1994.
  92. Bisaga A, Krzascik P, Jankowski E, et al. Effect of glutamate receptor antagonists on N-methyl-D- aspartate- and (S)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid-induced convulsant effects in mice and rats. European Journal of Pharmacology 242(3): 213-220; 1993.
  93. Wlaz P, Ebert U, Loscher W. Low doses of the glycine/NMDA receptor antagonist R-(+)-HA-966 but not D-cycloserine induce paroxysmal activity in limbic brain regions of kindled rats. European Journal of Neuroscience 6(11): 1710-1719; 1994.
  94. Herberg LJ, Rose IC. Effects of D-cycloserine and cycloleucine, ligands for the NMDA-associated strychnine-insensitive glycine site, on brain-stimulation reward and spontaneous locomotion. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 36(4): 735-738; 1990.
  95. Thompson LT, Moskal JR, Disterhoft JF. Hippocampus-dependent learning facilitated with a monoclonal antibody or D-cycloserine. Nature 359(6396): 638-641; 1992.
  96. Flood JF, Morley JE, Lanthorn TH. Effect on memory processing by D-cycloserine, an agonist of the NMDA/glycine receptor. European Journal of Pharmacology 221(2-3): 249-254; 1992.
  97. Schuster GM, Schmidt WJ. D-cycloserine reverses the working memory impairment of hippocampal- lesioned rats in a spatial learning task. European Journal of Pharmacology 224(1): 97-98; 1992.
  98. Olton DS, Givens BS, Markowska AM, et al. Mnemonic functions of the cholinergic septohippocampal system. In: Squire LR, Weinberger NM, Lynch G, McGaugh JL, editors. Memory: organization and locus of change. New York: Oxford, 1992.
  99. Fishkin RJ, Ince ES, Carlezon WA Jr, et al. D-cycloserine attenuates scopolamine-induced learning and memory deficits in rats. Behavioral Neural Biology 59(2): 150-157; 1993.
  100. Sirvio J, Ekonsalo T, Riekkinen P Jr, et al. D-cycloserine, a modulator of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, improves spatial learning in rats treated with muscarinic antagonist. Neuroscience Letters 146(2): 215-218; 1992.
  101. Chessell IP, Procter AW, Francis PT, et al. D-cycloserine, a putative cognitive enhancer, facilitates activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-ionophore complex in Alzheimer brain. Brain Research 565(2): 345-348; 1991.
  102. Jones RW, Wesnes KA, Kirby J. Effects of NMDA modulation in scopolamine dementia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 640: 241-244; 1991.
  103. Wesnes K, Jones RW, Kirby J. The effects of D-cycloserine, a glycine agonist, in a human model of the cognitive deficits associated with ageing and dementia. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 31: 577P- 578P; 1991.
  104. Baxter MG, Lanthorn TH, Frick KM, et al. D-cycloserine, a novel cognitive enhancer, improves spatial memory in aged rats. Neurobiology of Aging 15(2): 207-213; 1994.
  105. Bowen DM, Francis PT, Pangalos MN, et al. Treatment strategies for Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 339(8785): 132-133; 1992.
  106. Vamvakides A. Nootropic activity of glycinergic derivatives in relation to their dualistic effects on cerebral monoamines. Bollettino di Chimico Farmaceutico (Italy) 133(6): 369-373; 1994.
  107. Procter AW, Wong EHG, Stratmann GC, et al. Reduced glycine stimulation of [3H]MK-801 binding in Alzheimer disease. Journal of Neurochemistry 53(3): 698-704; 1989.
  108. Schwartz BL, Hashtroudi S, Herting RL, et al. D-cycloserine enhances implicit memory in Alzheimer patients. Neurology (In press).
  109. Randolph C, Roberts JW, Tierney MC, et al. D-cycloserine treatment of Alzheimer disease. Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders 8(3): 198-205; 1994.
  110. Deutsch SI, Mastropaolo J, Schwartz BL, et al. 'A glutamate hypothesis' of schizophrenia. Rationale for pharmacotherapy with glycine. Clinical Neuropharmacology 12(1): 1-13; 1989.
  111. Kim JS, Kornhuber HH, Schmid-Burgk W, et al. Low cerebrospinal fluid glutamate in schizophrenia patients and a new hypothesis on schizophrenia. Neuroscience Letters 20(3): 379-382; 1980.
  112. Dall'Olio R, Rimondini R, Gandolfi O. The NMDA positive modulator D-cycloserine inhibits dopamine- mediated behaviors in the rat. Neuropharmacology 33: 55-59; 1994.
  113. Dall'Olio R, Gandolfi O. The NMDA positive modulator D-cycloserine potentiates the neuroleptic activity of D1 and D2 dopamine receptor blockers in the rat. Psychopharmacology 110(1-2): 165-168; 1993.
  114. Gandolfi O, Rimondini R, Dall'Olio R. D-cycloserine decreases both D1 and D2 dopamine receptors number and their function in rat brain. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior 48(2): 351-356; 1994.
  115. Carlsson ML, Engberg G, Carlsson A. Effects of D-cycloserine and (+)-HA-966 on the locomotor stimulation induced by NMDA antagonists and clonidine in monoamine-depleted mice. Journal of Neural Transmission--General Section 95(3): 223-233; 1994.
  116. Goff DC, Tsai G, Manoach DS, et al. Dose-finding trial of D-cycloserine added to neuroleptics for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry 152(8): 1213-1215; 1995.
  117. Pittaluga A, Pattarini R, Raiteri M. Putative cognition enhancers reverse kynurenic acid antagonism at hippocampal NMDA receptors. European Journal of Pharmacology 272(2-3): 203-209; 1995.


Download data is not yet available.