Skip to main navigation menu Skip to main content Skip to site footer

Research Article

Vol. 11 No. 2 (2008)

Tannin extracted from Sumac inhibits vascular smooth muscle cell migration

  • Hanieh Zargham
  • Ramin Zargham
November 7, 2020


Background – Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) migration is integral in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Sumac (Rhus coriaria) berries are believed to have atheroprotective effects. Therefore, Sumac, which is a rich source of tannin antioxidants, was tested for its capacity to inhibit VSMC migratory activity. Materials & Methods – Tannin was extracted and purified from ground Sumac. Cultured rat carotid VSMCs were treated with different concentrations of tannin. After 10 days of tannin treatment, VSMC migratory activity in response to platelet-derived growth factor-BB was measured by transmembrane migration assay. An equal number of VSMCs was loaded on top of the inserts and at the bottom of the wells.After fixation and staining, cells migrating through the inserts and cells seeded at the bottom of the wells were counted. Results – A significant reduction (62%) of VSMC migration was evident in tannin-treated cells. To rule out any possible toxicity and cell death, cells at the bottom of the wells were also counted. No difference between the tannin-treated group and the controls was observed in the number of cells seeded at the bottom of the wells.Conclusion – Our data suggest that tannin extracted from Sumac possesses potent antimigratory activity. Sumac may have potential for the prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Further experiments, especially in vivo, are required to examine the atheroprotective effect of Sumac.


  1. (1) Thom T, Ha N, Rea W. Heart Disease and Stroke Statistics – 2006 Update. A Report from the American Heart Association Statistics Committee and Stroke Statistics Subcommittee Source. 2006. American Heart Association Web site.
  2. (2) Kher N, Marsh JD. Pathobiology of atherosclerosis: a brief review. Semin Thromb Hemost 30: 665-72; 2004.
  3. (3) Shah PK. Pathophysiology of plaque rupture and the concept of plaque stabilization. Cardiol Clin 21: 303-14; 2003.
  4. (4) Axel DI, Riessen R, Athanasiadis A, Runge H, Koveker G, Karsch KR. Growth factor expression of human arterial smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells in a transfilter coculture system. J Mol Cell Cardiol 29: 2967-78; 1997.
  5. (5) Jawien A, Bowen-Pope DF, Lindner V, Schwartz SM, Clowes AW. Platelet-derived growth factor promotes smooth muscle migration and intimal thickening in a rat model of balloon angioplasty. J Clin Invest 89: 507-11; 1992.
  6. (6) Iijima K, Yoshizumi M, Hashimoto M, et al. Red wine polyphenols inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell migration through two distinct signaling pathways. Circulation 105: 2404-10; 2002.
  7. (7) Candan F, Sökmen A. Effects of Rhus coriaria L (Anacardiaceae) on lipid peroxidation and free radical scavenging activity. Phytother Res 18: 84-6; 2004.
  8. (8) Ozcan M. Antioxidant activities of rosemary, sage, and sumac extracts and their combinations on stability of natural peanut oil. J Med Food 6: 267-70; 2003.
  9. (9) Kosar M, Bozan B, Temelli F, Baser KHC. Antioxidant activity and phenolic composition of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) extracts. Food Chem 103: 952-9; 2006.
  10. (10) Perchellet JP, Gali HU, Perchellet EM, Klish DS, Armbrust AD. Antitumor-promoting activities of tannic acid, ellagic acid, and several gallic acid derivatives in mouse skin. Basic Life Sci 59:783-801; 1992.
  11. (11) Zargham R, Thibault G. Alpha8beta1 integrin expression in the rat carotid artery: involvement in smooth muscle cell migration and neointima formation. Cardiovasc Res 65: 813-22; 2005.
  12. (12) Rudijanto A. The role of vascular smooth muscle cells on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Acta Med Indones 39: 86-93; 2007.
  13. (13) Doran AC, Meller N, McNamara CA. Role of smooth muscle cells in the initiation and early progression of atherosclerosis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28: 812-9; 2008.
  14. (14) Ma A, Qi S, Chen H. Antioxidant therapy for prevention of inflammation, ischemic reperfusion injuries and allograft rejection. Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem 6: 20-43; 2008.
  15. (15) Siekmeier R, Steffen C, März W. Role of oxidants and antioxidants in atherosclerosis: results of in vitro and in vivo investigations. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther 12: 265-82; 2007.
  16. (16) Harimaya K, Tanaka K, Matsumoto Y, Sato H, Matsuda S, Iwamoto Y.Antioxidants inhibit TNFalpha-induced motility and invasion of human osteosarcoma cells: possible involvement of NFkappaB activation. Clin Exp Metastasis 18: 121-9; 2000.
  17. (17) Yasunari K, Kohno M, Kano H, Yokokawa K, Minami M, Yoshikawa J. Antioxidants improve impaired insulin-mediated glucose uptake and prevent migration and proliferation of cultured rabbit coronary smooth muscle cells induced by high glucose. Circulation 99: 1370-8; 1999.
  18. (18) Auger C, Rouanet JM, Vanderlinde R, Bornet A, Décordé K, Lequeux N, Cristol JP, Teissedre PL. Polyphenols-enriched Chardonnay white wine and sparkling Pinot Noir red wine identically prevent early atherosclerosis in hamsters. J Agric Food Chem 53: 9823-9; 2005.
  19. (19) Rotondo S, Di Castelnuovo A, de Gaetano G. The relationship between wine consumption and cardiovascular risk: from epidemiological evidence to biological plausibility. Ital Heart J 2:1-8; 2001.
  20. (20) Waterhouse AL.Wine phenolics. Ann N YAcad Sci 957: 21-36; 2002.
  21. (21) El-Sissi HI, Ishak MS, El-Wahid MS, el-Ansari MA. The gallotannins of Rhus coriaria and Mangifera indica. Planta Med 19: 342-51; 1971.
  22. (22) Fan Y, Yuan JM, Wang R, Gao YT, Yu MC. Alcohol, tobacco, and diet in relation to esophageal cancer: the shanghai cohortstudy. Nutr Cancer 60: 354-63; 2008.
  23. (23) Ignarro LJ, Byrns RE, Sumi D, de Nigris F, Napoli C. Pomegranate juice protects nitric oxide against oxidative destruction and enhances the biological actions of nitric oxide. Nitric Oxide 15: 93-102; 2006.


Download data is not yet available.