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Letter to the Editor

Vol. 1 No. 2 (1995)

Intraoperative Myocardial Protection: Where Are We Going in the Future?

October 31, 2020




  1. Chiu RCJ. Myocardial Protection During Bypass Surgery: Theory and Practice. New York, NY: Praeger, 13-34; 1986.
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  3. Shumway NE, Lower R. Hypothermia for extended periods of anoxic arrest. Surgical Forum 10: 563; 1959.
  4. Panos AL, Kingsley SJ, Hong AP, Salerno TA, Lichtenstein SV. Continuous warm blood cardioplegia. Surgery Forum 61: 233-235; 1990.
  5. Salerno TA, Houck JP, Barrozo CAM, et al. Retrograde continuous warm blood cardioplegia: a new concept in myocardial protection. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 51: 245-247; 1991.
  6. Salerno TA. Continuous blood cardioplegia: option for the future or return to the past? Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology 22 (Suppl. V): S49 (Abstract); 1990.
  7. Weisel RD, Mickle DAG, Finkle CD, Tumiati LC, Madonik M, Ivanov J. Delayed myocardial recovery after blood cardioplegia. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 48: 503-507; 1989.
  8. Christakis GT, Weisel RD, Mickle DAG, et al. Right ventricular function and metabolism. Circulation 82 (Suppl. IV): IV-332 - IV-340; 1990.
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  10. Menasche P, Piwicna A. Cardioplegia by way of the coronary sinus for valvular and coronary surgery. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 18: 628-636; 1991.
  11. Khan SJ, Panos AL, Salerno TA. Continuous normothermic blood cardioplegia in high risk patients. Abstract presented at the McGill University Health Science Exhibition, Montreal, Quebec, March, 1994.
  12. Panos AL, Khan SJ, Del Rizzo D, Barrozo CAM, Salerno TA. Continuous normothermic blood cardioplegia in the elderly using normothermic techniques. Cardiology in the Elderly, 1995, In press.
  13. Panos AL, Barrozo CAM, Al-Nowaiser O, Ali IS, Khan SJ, Salerno TA. Continuous normothermic blood cardioplegia in patients with severe ventricular dysfunction, 1995, In preparation.
  14. Panos AL, Khan SJ, Barrozo CAM, Ali IS, Al-Nowaiser O, Salerno TA. Retrograde continuous normothermic blood cardioplegia in surgery for acute ischemic mitral regurgitation reduces operative mortality. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 1995, Submitted.
  15. Rosenkranz ER, Vinten-Johansen J, Buckberg GD, Okamoto F, Edwards H, Bugyi H. Benefits of normothermic induction of blood cardioplegia in energy-depleted hearts, with maintenance of arrest by multidose cold blood cardioplegic infusions. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 84: 667-677; 1982.
  16. Buckberg GD. Recent progress in myocardial protection during cardiac operations. Cardiovascular Clinics 17: 291-319; 1987.
  17. Partington MT, Acar C, Buckberg GD, et al. Studies of retrograde cardioplegia. II. Advantages of antegrade/retrograde cardioplegia to optimize distribution in jeopardized myocardium. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 97: 613-622; 1989.
  18. Bhayana JN, Kalmbach T, McLBooth FV, et al. Combined antegrade/retrograde cardioplegia for myocardial protection: a clinical trial. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 98: 956-960; 1989.
  19. Shiki K, Masuda M, Yonenaga K, Asou T, Tokunaga K. Myocardial distribution of retrograde flow through the coronary sinus of the excised normal canine heart. Annals of Thoracic Surgery 41: 265-271; 1986.
  20. Stirling MC, McClanahan TB, Schott RJ, et al. Distribution of cardioplegic solution infused antegradely and retrogradely in normal canine hearts. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 106: 1066-1077; 1989.
  21. Buckberg GD, Beyersdorf F, Kato NS. Technical considerations and logic of antegrade and retrograde blood cardioplegic delivery. Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery 5: 123-133; 1993.
  22. Aldea GS, Hou D, Fonger JD, Shemin RJ. In homogeneous and complementary delivery of antegrade and retrograde cardioplegia in the absence of coronary artery obstruction. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery (in press); 1995.
  23. Ihnken K, Morita K, Buckberg GD, et al. Simultaneous arterial and coronary sinus perfusion: an experimental/clinical study of a new cardioprotective strategy in high-risk patients. Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 42: 141-147; 1994.


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