Vol. 19 No. 1 (2021)
Childhood Obesity Interventions by Setting
National Cancer Institute
Background: To combat the global health crisis of obesity, many interventions have been implemented, including in children and adolescents. This age range is uniquely important because health behavior continues into adulthood, resulting in lifelong health risks or benefits. This narrative review aims to provide a cross section of the scientific literature regarding obesity interventions by setting, including school-based, daycare-based, home-based, healthcare-based, and digital-based, as well as to highlight gaps in research.
Methods: Articles written in English addressing childhood and adolescent obesity interventions were sought online using PubMed and Google Scholar searches. Although some articles were from a global perspective, the majority focused on children in the United States. This search included reviews, individual studies, and other related papers.
Results: School-based interventions are accessible to many, but there is limited evidence of long-term benefits. Home-based interventions were the only setting to have compelling evidence of long-term benefits, although there are several barriers to participation. Healthcare-based interventions are often successful when specific strategies and unique advantages of healthcare settings are utilized. Digital interventions have limited success now, but show potential for cost-effective scaling up as technology improves.
Conclusion: The clearest gap in research is the lack of long-term studies, especially of school-based and healthcare-based interventions. Thus, it is imperative that investments are made into studies that include follow-up components continuing at least 1-2 years after the intervention. Additionally, home-based interventions have been more successful during early childhood while school-based interventions tend to be more successful during adolescence.
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