Effect of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on an Individual’s Ability to Learn to Control a Brain-Computer Interface
Purpose: Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) are systems which enable direct communication between a brain and an external device by translating electrical brain activity into meaningful output. This technology can be used by individuals with motor impairments to interact and communicate with their external environment. BCIs based upon manipulating the sensorimotor rhythm (SMR) through motor imagery have lengthy learning periods, which present a significant barrier to using this technology. We hypothesize that this learning period will be significantly reduced by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), which temporarily augments cortical excitability.
Methods: Participants were assigned into two groups - the experimental group, which received tDCS, and a control group, which received sham stimulation. Following tDCS, the participants used a SMR-based BCI to move a falling ball to hit targets that appeared on the left or right side of screen. The effect of tDCS was assessed by comparing the overall task accuracy and the SMR change during motor imagery between the two groups .
Results: The experimental group was significantly more accurate in controlling the BCI than the control group (p = 0.021); however, there was no significant difference between groups in the SMR change upon motor imagery (p = 0.22).
Conclusions. tDCS can be used to improve the performance of healthy individuals learning to use an SMR-based BCI.
- Wolpaw JR, Birbaumer N, Heetderks WJ, McFarland DJ, Peckham PH, Schalk G, et al. Brain-computer interface technology: A review of the first international meeting. IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering. 2000.
- Nicolas-Alonso LF, Gomez-Gil J. Brain computer interfaces, a review. Sensors. 2012.
- Schalk G, McFarland DJ, Hinterberger T, Birbaumer N, Wolpaw JR. BCI2000: A general-purpose brain-computer interface (BCI) system. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2004;
- Guger C, Daban S, Sellers E, Holzner C, Krausz G, Carabalona R, et al. How many people are able to control a P300-based brain-computer interface (BCI)? Neurosci Lett. 2009;
- Pfurtscheller G. Event-related EEG/MEG synchronization and desynchronization: basic principles. Clinical neurophysiology. Clin Neurophysiol. 1999;110(11):1842–57.
- Jeon Y, Nam CS, Kim YJ WM. Event-related (De) synchronization (ERD/ERS) during motor imagery tasks: Implications for brain–computer interfaces. Int J Ind Ergon. 2011;41(5):428–36.
- Baxter BS, Edelman BJ, Nesbitt N, He B. Sensorimotor Rhythm BCI with Simultaneous High Definition-Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Alters Task Performance. Brain Stimul. 2016;
- Blankertz B, Sannelli C, Halder S, Hammer EM, Kübler A, Müller KR, et al. Neurophysiological predictor of SMR-based BCI performance. Neuroimage. 2010;
- Wolpaw JR, Birbaumer N, McFarland DJ, Pfurtscheller G, Vaughan TM. Brain--computer interfaces for communication and control. Clin Neurophysiol. 2002;
- Jeunet C, Jahanpour E, Lotte F. Why standard brain-computer interface (BCI) training protocols should be changed: An experimental study. J Neural Eng. 2016;
- Ang KK, Guan C, Phua KS, Wang C, Teh I, Chen CW, et al. Transcranial direct current stimulation and EEG-based motor imagery BCI for upper limb stroke rehabilitation. In: Proceedings of the Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, EMBS. 2012.
- Nitsche M, Paulus W. Excitability changes induced in the human motor cortex by weak transcranial direct current stimulation. J Physiol. 2000;
- N, J. G J. ActivaDose® II tDCS Starter Kit. 2016.
- Fregni F, Boggio PS, Nitsche MA, Marcolin MA, Rigonatti SP, Pascual-Leone A. Treatment of major depression with transcranial direct current stimulation . Bipolar Disorders. 2006.
- Gleichmann M, Chow VW, Mattson MP. Homeostatic Disinhibition in the aging brain and alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimer’s Dis. 2011;
- Hecht D. Transcranial direct current stimulation in the treatment of anorexia. Med Hypotheses. 2010;
- Manenti R, Brambilla M, Rosini S, Orizio I, Ferrari C, Borroni B, et al. Time up and go task performance improves after transcranial direct current stimulation in patient affected by Parkinson’s disease. Neurosci Lett. 2014;
- O’Connell NE, Wand BM, Marston L, Spencer S, Desouza LH. Non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for chronic pain. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014.
- Ang KK, Guan C, Phua KS, Wang C, Zhao L, Teo WP, et al. Facilitating effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on motor imagery brain-computer interface with robotic feedback for stroke rehabilitation. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;
- Kasashima-Shindo Y, Fujiwara T, Ushiba J, Matsushika Y, Kamatani D, Oto M, et al. Brain-computer interface training combined with transcranial direct current stimulation in patients with chronic severe hemiparesis: Proof of concept study. J Rehabil Med. 2015;
- Matsumoto J, Fujiwara T, Takahashi O, Liu M, Kimura A, Ushiba J. Modulation of mu rhythm desynchronization during motor imagery by transcranial direct current stimulation. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2010;
- Kasashima Y, Fujiwara T, Matsushika Y, Tsuji T, Hase K, Ushiyama J, et al. Modulation of event-related desynchronization during motor imagery with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in patients with chronic hemiparetic stroke. Exp Brain Res. 2012;
- Foerster Á, Rocha S, Wiesiolek C, Chagas AP, Machado G, Silva E, et al. Site-specific effects of mental practice combined with transcranial direct current stimulation on motor learning. Eur J Neurosci. 2013;
- Mayka MA, Corcos DM, Leurgans SE, Vaillancourt DE. Three-dimensional locations and boundaries of motor and premotor cortices as defined by functional brain imaging: A meta-analysis. Neuroimage. 2006;
- P W. Performance of motor imagery brain-computer interface based on anodal transcranial direct current stimulation modulation. IEEE Trans Neural Syst Rehabil Eng. 2013;21(3):404–15.
- Green AM, Kalaska JF. Learning to move machines with the mind. Trends in Neurosciences. 2011.
- Schwartz AB, Cui XT, Weber DJJ, Moran DW. Brain-Controlled Interfaces: Movement Restoration with Neural Prosthetics. Neuron. 2006.
- Wolpaw JR. Brain-computer interfaces as new brain output pathways. In: Journal of Physiology. 2007.
- Fry A, Mullinger KJ, O’Neill GC, Barratt EL, Morris PG, Bauer M, et al. Modulation of post-movement beta rebound by contraction force and rate of force development. Hum Brain Mapp. 2016;
- Hammer EM, Halder S, Blankertz B, Sannelli C, Dickhaus T, Kleih S, et al. Psychological predictors of SMR-BCI performance. Biol Psychol. 2012;
- Nijboer F, Furdea A, Gunst I, Mellinger J, McFarland DJ, Birbaumer N, et al. An auditory brain-computer interface (BCI). J Neurosci Methods. 2008;
Download data is not yet available.